Continuous variable quantum entanglement at 1.34 μm
Ma Ya-Yun1, Feng Jin-Xia1,2, Wan Zhen-Ju1, Gao Ying-Hao1, Zhang Kuan-Shou1,2
1. State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China;2. Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China>
Continuous variable (CV) quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource of CV quantum communication and quantum computation. It is useful in a wide variety of applications, including quantum teleportation, quantum dense coding, quantum key distribution, and high-precision quantum measurement. In this paper, we generate CV quantum entanglement at a telecommunication wavelength of 1342 nm by using a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) with a type-Ⅱ periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) crystal. A home-made continuous-wave single-frequency dual-wavelength (671 nm and 1342 nm) Nd:YVO4/LiB3O5 laser is achieved with output powers of 1.5 W (671 nm) and 1.3 W (1342 nm). Then a mode cleaner (MC1) with a fineness of 400 and linewidth of 0.75 MHz and a mode cleaner MC2 with a fineness of 400 and linewidth of 0.75 MHz are used to filter the noises of laser at 1342 nm and 671 nm, respectively. By using MCs, the intensity noise of laser reaches a shot noise level (SNL) for analysis frequencies higher than 1.0 MHz, and the phase noise of laser reaches an SNL for analysis frequencies higher than 1.3 MHz. Utilizing this kind of low noise single-frequency 671 nm laser as a pump, a doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator with a threshold of 325 mW is realised. When the low noise single-frequency 1342 nm laser is injected as a signal and the relative phase between the pump and injected signal is locked to π, the NOPA is operated at deamplification. After optimizing the temperature of the type-Ⅱ PPKTP crystal and at a pump power of 260 mW, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR)-entangled beams with quantum correlation of 3.0 dB for both the amplitude and phase quadratures are experimentally generated. The strength of EPR-entangled beams is relatively low. It is maybe due to the low nonlinear conversion efficiency and large absorption of the type-Ⅱ PPKTP crystal at 671 nm and 1342 nm. The generated CV quantum entanglement at 1.34 μm has lower transmission loss and smaller phase diffusion effect in a silica fiber. The research contributes to a high quality quantum source for the CV quantum communication based on existing telecommunication fiber networks.