Hard carbons as promising anode materials for Na-ion batteries (NIBs) have captured extensive attention because of their low operation voltage, easy synthesis process, and competitive specific capacity. However, there are still several disadvantages, such as high cost and low initial coulombic efficiency, which limit their large-scale commercial applications. Herein, pine nut shells (PNSs), a low-cost biomass waste, are used as precursors to prepare hard carbon materials. Via a series of washing and heat treatment procedures, a pine nut shell hard carbon (PNSHC)-1400 sample has been obtained and delivers a reversible capacity of around 300 mAh/g, a high initial coulombic efficiency of 84%, and good cycling performance. These excellent Na storage properties indicate that PNSHC is one of the most promising candidates of hard carbon anodes for NIBs.
Project supported by the President Fund Project of China Institute of Atomic Energy.
- Hao Guo, Kai Sun, Yaxiang Lu, Hongliang Wang, Xiaobai Ma, Zhengyao Li, Yong-Sheng Hu, Dongfeng Chen. Hard carbons derived from pine nut shells as anode materials for Na-ion batteries[J]. Chin. Phys. B, 2019, 28(6): 068203.