中国物理学会期刊网
物理  2017, Vol.46 Issue (8): 481-498  DOI:10.7693/wl20170801
量子力学诠释问题
(1 中国工程物理研究院研究生院 北京 100193) (2 北京计算科学研究中心 北京 100193)>
On interpretations of quantum mechanics
(1 Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics,Beijing 100193,China) (2 Quantum Physics and Quantum Information Division,Computational Science Research Center,Beijing 100193,China)>

摘要

量子力学的建立不仅奠定了当代科学的基础,而且在推动当代技术革命方面取得了惊人的成功。然而,对于量子力学诠释(interpretation of quantum mechanics)——理解波函数如何刻画微观世界,人们迄今为止并未形成共识。量子力学发展的这种二元状态不仅带来了认识论方面的误导,而且依据备受争议的哥本哈根诠释建立起来的量子技术会有许多根本性问题。
量子力学的哥本哈根诠释存在二元结构的问题:微观世界的运动用量子力学描述,是一个幺正演化,而观察或测量却依赖于量子系统外部的经典世界(仪器、观察者、环境),表现出来的波包塌缩是非幺正的。为此,包括爱因斯坦、薛定谔、温伯格等在内的一些著名学者对哥本哈根诠释提出了尖锐的批评。80年过去了,为克服量子力学的哥本哈根诠释二元论困境,人们提出各种各样的量子力学诠释,包括多世界诠释、量子退相干诠释、自洽历史诠释以及量子达尔文主义等。文章将简要介绍和评述这些量子力学诠释的基本思想、它们之间的逻辑关系及其实验检验的可能性。进一步澄清量子力学诠释中的基本概念,可以避免量子观念滥用导致的意识论上的问题和量子技术发展误入歧途。

Abstract

The establishment of quantum mechanics not only laid the foundation of contemporary science, but also has achieved amazing successes in the promotion of contemporary technological revolution. However, for the interpretation of quantum mechanics—understanding how wave functions describe the microscopic world, there is no consensus so far. This dilemma faced by quantum mechanics not only leads to some misinterpretation in epistemology, but also there are many problems with quantum technology based on the controversial Copenhagen interpretation.
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics appears also in the dilemma structure:the microscopic world is described by quantum mechanics, which is unitary, but its observation or measurement depends on the classical world outside the quantum system (instrument, observer,environment), and the wave packet collapse implied is non-unitary. To this end, some well-known scholars, including Einstein, Schro?dinger and Weinberg, made sharp criticisms on the Copenhagen interpretation. As 80 years have passed, in order to overcome dualism predicament in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, people put forward a variety of interpretations for quantum mechanics, including many world interpretation, quantum decoherence interpretation, consistent history, quantum Darwinism, etc. This review will briefly introduce and comment on the basic ideas of these quantum mechanics interpretations, the logical relationship between them and the possibility of their experimental tests. By further clarifying the basic concepts in the interpretation of quantum mechanics, we hope to avoid the epistemological problems caused by the abuse of the quantum conception and quantum technology development going astray.
收稿日期:2017-07-14

基金资助

国家自然科学基金创新研究群体(批准号:11421063)资助项目;NSAF基金-科学研究中心项目(面向重大需求的理论物理研究)

引用本文

[中文]
孙昌璞. 量子力学诠释问题[J]. 物理, 2017, 46(8): 481-498.
[英文]
SUN Chang-Pu. On interpretations of quantum mechanics[J]. Physics, 2017, 46(8): 481-498.
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